Sunday, November 28, 2010

Introduction to AS3 Event Handling - Learn All About AS3 Event Listeners

Part 1: Introduction to AS3 event handling
Part 2: How to create an AS3 event listener
Part 3: The AS3 event object
by Alberto Medalla
Lecturer, Ateneo de Manila University

In this series of articles, we're going to learn all about the basics of Flash AS3 event handling. This first part will introduce to you the concept of events within Flash and how these events can be handled throughout a Flash movie or application. Let's begin.

ActionScript code inside a Flash movie or application only gets executed after specific events occur. Let's say we have Event A, Event B and Event C - some parts of the code will run only after Event A happens (whatever that event may be), while other parts of the code will wait for either Event B or Event C. Now, I know the word "event" can sound a bit dramatic. Are we talking about a catastrophic event? A mysterious event? Or an explosive event, perhaps? Not really. This simply means that the various blocks of code in a Flash movie wait for specific things to happen - events - before they respond. They don't just get executed all at the same time. Let's say, for example, you have a Flash space fighter game. And in this game, your character is a small spaceship that shoots lasers, and your enemy is a giant mother ship. Your task is to keep firing at this mother ship until you break down its force field so that you can then destroy the entire mother ship altogether. Destroy the mother ship before it destroys you, and achieve this goal before your time runs out.

So in this game, you'll have some code that controls the firing of the lasers, while some other part of your code will enable the user to control the movement of your spaceship. And then you'll have more code that will control the energy of the enemy mother ship's force field, code for the game's time limit, code for the scoring, and so on... Now, obviously, you don't want all of that code to just keep running all at the same time. For instance, the code that creates the time limit should run immediately when the game begins, while the code for firing the lasers should run only when the user presses the space bar on the keyboard. Here, you see that there is an event and a response. An event would be something that happens while the Flash movie or application is running. That event could be anything - a user clicking on a button or an image being downloaded, for example. A response would be how the Flash movie or application would react after a specific event occurs. That response could be anything as well - play an audio file, go to the next frame, display some text, etc... In the 2 previous examples, the events would be: (1) the starting of the game, and (2) the user pressing the space bar key. The respective responses would be: (1) the starting of the counter for the time limit, and (2) the firing of the lasers.

Event Response
Game starts Time limit starts running
User presses space bar Lasers are fired

Let's take a look at an actual example. In the image below, you will see that there is some ActionScript on the keyframe on the last frame of the Flash movie.


This last frame contains a stop() action, which will prevent the animation from looping when it reaches the end.


And since this stop() action is placed in the last frame, then it only gets executed once the playhead reaches that last frame. Not the first frame, not the middle frame, not any other frame except for the last one. So the event that Flash is waiting for in this example would be: the moment that the playhead enters the last frame. While the response would be: the Flash animation stops.

Event Response
Playhead enters last frame Flash animation stops

If, for example, we wanted to stop the animation on frame 25 instead, then we should place the stop() action on a keyframe on frame 25.


So the event that invokes the response here would be: the playhead entering frame 25 (instead of the playhead entering the last frame).

But this is a rather simple example. Here, the event that we are waiting for is simply dependent on the movement of the playhead along the frames of our animation. We just have to write the code, run the movie, and then wait for the playhead to enter the frames that contain ActionScript code.

But what about other types of events? 
Let's take user-based events, for example. User-based events are those that are initiated directly by the user, such as a mouse click or a keyboard press. In the space fighter game example, the user pressing the spacebar key is considered a user-based event. Whenever the user presses the spacebar, the spaceship fires its lasers. So whatever code in the Flash movie is responsible for shooting the lasers should be executed only when the user-based event of pressing the spacebar key happens. And then there are also other types of events other than user-based events that occur while the Flash movie is running. For example, when an external image is loaded into a Flash movie, the moment the loading of the image finishes can be considered as an event as well.

So how do we write ActionScript code that will allow us to identify a specific event and then tell Flash to respond only after that event occurs?
The process of identifying events and telling Flash how to respond is referred to as event handling. In order for you to be able to handle events in Flash, you must write what is called an event listener. An event listener is a function that will execute only when the specified event occurs (a mouse click, a press of a keyboard key, etc...). In order for an event listener to know the right moment at which to execute, it must be registered to an event's source. It's quite common to have numerous event listeners in one Flash project in order to deal with the many different events that can happen while the Flash movie is running. This is one of the reasons why AS3 event handling is one of the most important things that you should get a good grasp of when you are starting to learn ActionScript 3.

In the next article, we're going to learn how to write an ActionScript 3 event listener and how to register it to an event's source.

NEXT: How to Create AS3 Event Listeners

12 comments:

  1. Marc W. Los AngelesAugust 6, 2011 at 10:52 AM

    I am liking this guy! Finally some REAL beginner info that does not assume the person has a base knowledge. VERY NICELY DONE!

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  2. And I like that you like! Thanks! :)

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  3. You should seriously think about writing a book. I love the "plain english" translation of a technical concept.

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  4. Thank you! That is one of the nicest comments I've received. Really appreciate it! Glad you liked the tutorial!

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  5. I love this tutorials searched a long time for this great job to the one who wrote this even me can understand it now. :-)

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  6. I couldn't agree more with Marc! Really great tutorials for beginners!!! Thank you very much

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  7. these are the best tutorials that I've ever come across on AS3, superbly written x

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  8. Being a elementary student who has no idea about technical programming and software and all of that stuff, and has trouble understanding coding, this tutorial definitely helped! :D This tutorial does an AMAZING job of explaining how things work, and has really helped. All of the other ones on the web are confusing, and sometimes they just tell you to copy and paste things. Thank you for posting this!

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    1. You're welcome! And I'm glad you're taking an interest in programming at a young age. Keep going for it! :)

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  9. Thanks for this, sir.

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  10. Very thankful to you... I am a flash designer it is helping me to move myself towards flash programmer.... Very simple and clean descriptions given..

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  11. Thank you very much :'(

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